Monday, February 10, 2020

Benefits of Stem Cell Research and Parkinsons disease Proposal

Benefits of Stem Cell and Parkinsons disease - Research Proposal Example Since immuno-rejection is the major complication in transplantation medicine, scientists are keen to create patient-specific donor cells using the therapeutic potential of induced pluripotent stem (IPS) cells for neural cell replacement that could reduce inherent risks of stem cell therapy. Advancement in science and technology made us capable of new discoveries and is creating wonders through replicating nature and with the successful cloning of sheep 'Dolly", we are at the threshold of human cloning. Isolation and culture of human embryonic stem cell (hES cells) and human embryonic germ cell (hEG cell) was first reported in 1998. It was a milestone in the history of stem cell research, because hES cells are considered to be the most fundamental and extraordinary of the stem cells, which has the potential for differentiation into a diverse cell type. Stem cells are the foundation cells for every organ, tissue and cell in the body" that are "blank", "self sustaining, and "can replicate themselves for long periods", which could develop into specialized tissues and organs under proper conditions. (Frequently Asked Question on stem cell research: What are stem cells). Stem cells are believed to be the "reservoirs of repair cells" that could replace degenerated cells and t issues of an organism, which make them suitable in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Though various types of stem cells have diverse properties, their capability of "self-renewal and also of differentiation into specialized cells. Some stem cells are more committed to a particular developmental fate than others." This makes stem cells appropriate for therapeutic purpose in regenerative medicine. (Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, p.15). Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons in the nucleus of mitochondria. Principal symptoms for diagnosing Parkinson's Disease are involuntary shaking of limbs; stiffness of joints and rigidity of the limbs; "bradykinesia" (slowness in all voluntary movements), "hypokinesia" (poverty of movement), and postural instability (difficulty adjusting to changes in body position). (Clarke, C E, p.441-445). Parkinson patients develop problems like dementia, motor control problems, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Since pharmacological therapy (primarily levodopa, dopamine agonists, or monoamine-oxidase-B inhibitors) and surgical treatment for "subthalmic stimulation" is not fully effective in controlling the progressive dopamine decay, it is hoped that recent advances in stem cell transplantation has the ability to replace degenerated neurons and reduce the sufferings of Patients ailing from Parkinson Disease patients (Clark, 2007). Since the number of people requiring transplants are far more than organ donors, it is considered that the unique characteristics of stem cells to replicate and regenerate themselves to specialized tissues and organs, under proper conditions, are considered to be beneficial in the treatment of debilitating diseases like Alzheimers, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, burns, etc. Stem cells can be obtained from embryo, bone marrow, umbilical cord of a newborn baby, amniotic fluid, and some tissues of the brain, of which embryonic stem cells are referred to as pluripotent

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